MEDICOLOGY: PHARMACOLOGY QUIZZES 02 | Multiple Choice Questions| Medical Exam Preparations

Friday, January 14, 2022

PHARMACOLOGY QUIZZES 02 | Multiple Choice Questions| Medical Exam Preparations

01. Nalidixic acid is a fluoroquinolone that belongs to one of the following generations?
A. 1st generation
B. 2st generation
C. 3rd Generation
D. 4th Generation

Answer: A. 1st generation

02. Azithromycin belongs to the class of the following drugs?
A. Antiviral 
B. Antipyretic 
C. Antiprotozoal
D. Antibiotics 
E. Anti-malaria 

Answer: D. Antibiotics

03. Which one of the following drugs is a 3rd generation fluoroquinolone?
A. Moxifloxacin
B. Nalidixic acid
C. Levofloxacin
D. Ciprofloxacin

Answer: C. Levofloxacin

04. Nystatin belongs to the class of the following drugs?
A. Antiviral 
B. Antipyretic 
C. Antiprotozoal
D. Antifungal  
E. Anti-malaria 

Answer: D. Antifungal 

05. Which one of the following drugs belongs to Antidiarrheals?
A. Aluminium hydroxide 
B. Atorvastatin
C. Nizatidine 
D. Ezetimibe
E. Indanyl carbenicillin 

Answer: A. Aluminium hydroxide 

06. Na+ channel blockers belong to one of the following CLASS of Antiarrhythmic drugs?

Answer: A. CLASS I 

07. Which of the following drug is a part of drugs for osteoporosis?
A. Calcitonin 
B. Rabeprazole
C. Acetazolamide 
D. Furosemide 
E. A & B

Answer: A. Calcitonin 

08. Maximum daily dose of Aspirin for no longer than 10 days for pain is following?
A. 660 mg
B. 1200 mg
C. 2000 mg
D. 4000 mg
E. 6000 mg

Answer: D. 4000 mg

09. Echothiophate, which is used mainly for ophthalmic actions (treat open-angle glaucoma) inhibits:
a). Acetylcholinesterase
b). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
c). DOPA decarboxylase
d). Monoamine Oxidase 
e). Tyrosine hydroxylase

Answer: a). Acetylcholinesterase
Echothiophate MOA: Duration of action (100 Hours)
An organophosphate that covalently bind via its phosphate group at the active site or AChE. After this enzyme is permanently inactive. Pralidoxime is used to activate this enzyme to synthesize new enzymes. 
Rarely used because of Risk of cataracts as an side effect.

10. Pellagra is a disease that causes inflammation of the skin, diarrhea, dementia, and soreness in the mouth. It's also characterized by 4D's diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Which vitamin deficiency cause pellagra?
A. Vitamin A (Retinol)
B. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
C. Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)
D. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
E. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Answer: Vitamin B3 (niacin) (also high dosage decrease LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and raises HDL cholesterol)
Peripheral neuropathy and glossitis are common.

11. Which of the following statements not right about the production of Acetylcholine?
A. Acetylcholine released by an increase in calcium level 
B. Acetylcholine rapidly hydrolyzed by Acetylcholinesterase
C. Uptake of choline is a rate-limiting step
D. Acetylcholine is metabolized by COMT
E. Neurotransmitters in vesicles are called varicosities

Answer: D. Acetylcholine is metabolized by COMT

12. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are the adverse effects of following drugs?
A. Protease inhibitors
B. Integrase inhibitors
C. Entry inhibitors
D. Nucleoside analogs

Answer: A. Protease inhibitors

13. When a blood clot adheres to the vessel wall this is called one of the following?
A. Embolus
B. Thrombus
C. Coagulation
D. All of the above

Answer: B. Thrombus

14. Which one of the following statements about dobutamine is incorrect?
A. Positive inotropic effect   
B. 𝛃1 receptor stimulator 
C. Avoid acute heart failure 
D. Increase myocardial cAMP 
E. Increase contractility 

Answer: C. Avoid in acute heart failure  

15. A drug induces rapid depolarization of the membrane inhibiting the intracellular synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein?
A. Vancomycin
B. Aztreonam
C. Imipenem
D. Daptomycin

Answer: D. Daptomycin
Daptomycin is inactivated by pulmonary surfactants and should never be used in treatment of pneumonia.

16. Atropine is an antimuscarinic agent block the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Which of the following Antagonist is required to counteract the poison of Atropine?
A. Naloxone
B. Fomepizole
C. Physostigmine
D. Flumazenil
E. Neostigmine

Answer: C. Physostigmine
Adult Dose: 1-2mg slow IV infusion over 3-5 minutes titrated to effect 
Pediatric Dose: 0.02mg/kg slow infusion over 3-5 minutes titrated to effect 
I. Increase intestinal and bladder motility 
II. Reverse CNS and Cardiac effects of TCA
III. Reverse CNS effects of Atropine 
IV. Can penetrate CNS, uncharged tertiary amine

17. Sjögren syndrome is characterized by a dry mouth and lack of tears. what is the recommended drug for this syndrome?
A. Pilocarpine
B. Atropine
C. Cyclopentolate
D. Tropicamide
E. Bethanechol

Answer: A. Pilocarpine
I. Can penetrate CNS , uncharged tertiary amine
II. Reduce intraocular pressure in open angle or narrow angle glaucoma,

18. Which one of the following is the wrong statement about the use of Acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter?
A. In preganglionic fibers terminated at the adrenal medulla
B. Acetylcholine has a positive chronotropic effect
C. Neurotransmitter of parasympathetic nerves
D. Neurotransmitter of somatic nerves
E.  Rapidly inactivated by cholinesterase

Answer: B. Acetylcholine has a positive chronotropic effect

20. At low doses, one of the following drugs irreversible inhibits thromboxane production in platelets leading to a decrease in platelet aggregation?
A. Ticlopidine
B. Clopidogrel
C. Aspirin
D. A & B

 Answer: C. Aspirin
Thromboxane A² increases the platelets aggregation but PGI² decreases the platelets aggregation. When aspirin low doses are used it irreversibly inhibits the production of thromboxane in platelets by acetylation of COX. Platelets do not have nuclei so they can't synthesize new enzymes due to which thromboxane deficiency persists for a lifetime. when thromboxane is decreased the platelets aggregation is reduced.

21. Organophosphate and carbamate anticholinesterase poisoning cause pulmonary hypersecretion, following drug given repeatedly IV until secretions have dried?
A. Fomepizole 
B. Physostigmine 
C. Carbachol
D. Atropine 
E. Echothiophate 

Answer: Atropine (also given until heart rate increases)
Dose Adult: 2-5mg IV for bronchospasm repeat after 10-30 minutes interval until hypersecretion dried.
Pediatric dose: 0.05mg/kg
Severe overdose need 100mg in a few hours 
If required for several days 0.02-.08mg/kg per hour recommend

22. Acetaminophen is primarily metabolised via following in infants?
A. Sulfation
B. Methylation 
C. Acetylation
D. Conjugation 
E. CYP450 

Answer: A. Sulfation  
Liver metabolism 
Phase I reactions: (Oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydroxylation) hepatic CYP450 responsible for phase I
Phase II reactions: Conjugation with glycine and glutathione 
Glucuronidation, Sulfation, methylation, Acetylation.

23. Grasping syndrome can result respiratory failure,seizures, neurologic deterioration, metabolic acidosis and vascular collapse due to accumulation of following in neonates?
A. Aspirin 
B. Benzyl alcohol
C. Acetaminophen 
D. Polyethylene glycol 
E. Diphthalate

Answer: B. Benzyl alcohol 
Accumulate in neonates bcoz neonate's alcohol dehydrogenase is underdeveloped. 

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